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What are Ethereum EIPs?

  • Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) are formal proposals that facilitate the development and enhancement of the Ethereum blockchain.
  • EIPs provide a platform for community collaboration and democratic decision-making, allowing for the suggestion, discussion, and implementation of changes to the Ethereum network.
  • EIPs are instrumental in promoting transparency, inclusivity, and the long-term success of Ethereum by enabling the network to evolve, address security vulnerabilities, enhance scalability, and drive user adoption.
  • ERCs, a subset of EIPs, define standards and conventions for specific applications within the Ethereum ecosystem, such as token standards like ERC-20 and ERC-721, which have played a significant role in the growth of the token economy and NFTs.

Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) play a vital role in facilitating the continuous development and enhancement of the Ethereum blockchain. In a manner similar to Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), EIPs serve as formal proposals that enable the Ethereum community to suggest, discuss, and implement changes aimed at improving the functionality, security, and versatility of the Ethereum network.

Understanding EIPs

Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) are comprehensive and concise documents that outline proposed changes or improvements to the Ethereum network. These proposals cover a wide range of topics, including technical specifications, the introduction of new features, the establishment of standards, and modifications to existing network functions. EIPs are designed to be easily understood and provide a clear roadmap for implementation.

Driving Growth and Collaboration

EIPs provide a platform for community members, including developers, researchers, and active participants, to actively contribute to the evolution of Ethereum. They encourage a democratic and inclusive approach to network development, fostering an environment where ideas are openly shared, discussed, and refined. By enabling diverse perspectives and expertise, EIPs promote collaborative decision-making and ensure that proposed changes align with the community’s vision and requirements.

Furthermore, EIPs are instrumental in ensuring compatibility and consensus among Ethereum clients during network upgrades. Each network upgrade comprises a specific set of EIPs that must be implemented by all Ethereum clients to maintain synchronization and agreement across the network.

By providing a structured framework for proposing and documenting changes, EIPs empower participants in the Ethereum ecosystem to actively shape the evolution of the network. They foster transparency, inclusivity, and community-driven decision-making, enabling Ethereum to adapt and improve based on the needs and perspectives of its diverse stakeholders.

EIP Life Cycle
Proposal Submission and Community Engagement

EIPs can be submitted by anyone interested in contributing to the Ethereum ecosystem, as outlined in the guidelines of EIP-1, which was published in 2015. In line with the decentralized ethos of the Ethereum foundation, these proposals undergo a rigorous review process by the community upon submission, allowing for constructive feedback, debate, and refinement. This inclusive approach ensures that proposals are thoroughly vetted and considered from various angles.

Acceptance and Implementation

After community review, EIPs that gain consensus and demonstrate technical soundness are accepted. Accepted EIPs become part of the Ethereum Improvement Proposal system and are implemented during protocol updates. These updates, known as hard forks, involve making changes to the Ethereum codebase and releasing updated versions of the software. Hard forks ensure that all participants in the network operate under the same set of rules and protocols, maintaining network consensus and uniformity.

Significance of EIPs
Evolution and Adaptation

EIPs enable the Ethereum network to evolve and adapt to the changing needs and demands of its users. By incorporating new features and functionalities, EIPs promote innovation and support the development of decentralized applications (DApps). This dynamic ecosystem encourages experimentation and the exploration of novel use cases, driving the broader adoption and utility of Ethereum.

Enhancing Security, Scalability, and Efficiency

EIPs play a crucial role in addressing security vulnerabilities and improving the overall resilience of the Ethereum network. They propose solutions to enhance security measures and ensure the protection of user assets. Additionally, EIPs contribute to the scalability and efficiency of Ethereum by introducing optimizations and performance enhancements.

Promoting Transparency and Inclusivity

EIPs hold immense significance in promoting transparency and inclusivity within the Ethereum community. The open nature of EIP submissions allows individuals from various backgrounds, irrespective of their expertise, to contribute to the network’s development. This democratic approach ensures that a wide range of perspectives and ideas are considered during the proposal phase. Through community-driven reviews, discussions, and feedback loops, EIPs undergo meticulous evaluation, testing, and refinement. This collaborative process ensures that proposed changes undergo rigorous scrutiny, enhancing the overall quality and resilience of the Ethereum ecosystem.

Facilitating Long-term Success and User Adoption

The implementation of EIPs serves as a crucial factor in the long-term success and widespread adoption of the Ethereum network. By continuously evolving to address the changing needs of its users, Ethereum remains relevant and attractive to developers, investors, and businesses. The iterative nature of EIPs ensures that Ethereum can adapt to emerging trends and technologies, remaining at the forefront of the blockchain revolution. Through this commitment to innovation and user-centric development, Ethereum cultivates an ecosystem that supports a broad range of use cases and drives its global adoption.

EIPs vs ERCs

Among the different categories of EIPs, Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) stands out as a key component, encompassing standards and conventions that shape various aspects of Ethereum’s functionality and applications.

An Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) refers to the original draft proposal written by developers, later refined as an EIP. ERCs primarily focus on different application levels and conventions within the Ethereum ecosystem. Notable examples include token standards such as ERC-20, which defines the interface for fungible tokens, and URI schemes, library/package formats (EIP-82), and wallet formats. If an ERC gains consensus within the Ethereum community, it becomes a standard that automates the rules outlined in the ERC through a related smart contract.

Standards Track EIPs cover a broad range of changes that impact most or all Ethereum implementations. These proposals can be further categorized into subcategories, including core, networking, interface, and ERC. The distinction lies in where these proposals are deployed and the level of consensus required for adoption. The following is a breakdown of the Standard Track EIPs:

Core EIP

Core EIPs are deployed at the protocol level and necessitate broad consensus within the Ethereum community. For such EIPs to be considered successful, widespread adoption is essential, requiring all nodes to upgrade to the new protocol version. Core EIPs play a critical role in defining the fundamental rules and protocols that govern the entire Ethereum network.

Networking EIPs

Networking EIPs focus on improvements related to network communication and peer-to-peer protocols. These proposals aim to enhance the efficiency, scalability, and security of the Ethereum network’s communication infrastructure.

Interface EIP

Interface EIPs primarily concentrate on user experience and the development of user-facing interfaces. These proposals seek to improve the usability, accessibility, and interoperability of Ethereum-based applications, making it easier for users to interact with the blockchain.


ERCs are a subset of Standards Track EIPs deployed at the application level. Unlike core EIPs, ERCs do not require universal adoption. Instead, they provide standardized templates and conventions for specific applications, such as token standards or library/package formats. ERCs enable developers to build on established standards, fostering compatibility and interoperability among Ethereum-based projects.

ERC Use Cases

The Ethereum ecosystem comprises various ERC standards that serve specific use cases. Here are a few examples:


ERC-20, proposed by Fabian Vogelsteller and VButerin in November 2015, is the most widely adopted interface for fungible tokens within smart contracts. It provides an API that enables seamless interaction with tokens. Some key functionalities offered by ERC-20 tokens include the ability to transfer tokens between accounts, check an account’s token balance, view the total token supply, and verify third-party spending.

This standardized interface allows tokens to be easily integrated into different applications, ranging from wallets to decentralized exchanges. The ERC-20 token standard has played a pivotal role in facilitating the growth of the token economy on Ethereum.


On the other hand, the ERC-721 standard was introduced in January 2018 by William Entriken, Dieter Shirley, Jacob Evans, and Nastassia Sachs. Inspired by ERC-20, ERC-721 is designed for non-fungible tokens (NFTs), which represent unique and indivisible assets. Each ERC-721 token possesses a distinct identity reflected by a specific ID on the blockchain. This standard allows for the representation of assets such as digital artwork or songs. Notable examples of NFT collections utilizing the ERC-721 standard include CryptoKitties, a groundbreaking play-to-earn game where users breed and collect digital cats, Ethereum Name Service (ENS), which transforms complex wallet addresses into human-readable names, URLs, and emojis, and Bored Ape Yacht Club (BAYC), a highly sought-after collection of unique NFTs that grants membership benefits and privileges within an exclusive community.

These ERC standards showcase the versatility of the Ethereum blockchain by enabling developers and users to leverage standardized interfaces for different types of tokens and assets. They have played a significant role in fostering innovation, creativity, and new possibilities within the decentralized ecosystem.


ERC-1155 is a token standard that combines fungible and non-fungible tokens into a single contract, enabling efficient transfers of different token types in a single transaction. It eliminates the need for multiple contracts, reduces redundancy, and improves cost-effectiveness. It supports an infinite number of tokens, including semi-fungible ones, and incorporates a safe transfer function. ERC-1155 simplifies token management and transaction signing, offering benefits such as lower fees and increased efficiency for various use cases, particularly in gaming.


EIPs serve as formal proposals to enhance and advance the Ethereum blockchain. They provide a structured framework for suggesting, discussing, and implementing changes to the network. EIPs cover a broad spectrum of topics, including technical specifications, new features, standards, and modifications to existing functions. These proposals are not limited to developers alone but are open to contributions from anyone within the Ethereum community.

EIPs also play a vital role in enabling the evolution, adaptability, and innovation of the Ethereum network, promoting transparency, inclusivity, and security. They facilitate the addition of new features, functionalities, and token standards like ERC-20 and ERC-721, which have revolutionized the token economy and enabled the growth of decentralized applications. With the continued development and adoption of EIPs, the Ethereum ecosystem is well-poised to thrive and meet the changing needs of its diverse and growing user base.

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